Drum and bass began as a musical paradigm shift of the United Kingdom breakbeat hardcore and rave scene of the mid 1990s; and over the first decade and a half of its existence there have been many permutations in its style, incorporating elements from dancehall, electro, funk, hip hop, house, jazz, pop-created fusion of hardcore, house and techno (with a strong accent of both the UK industrial and Belgian New Beat sounds), pioneered by Joey Beltram, L.A. Style, CJ Bolland, Richie Hawtin and others.
This scene existed briefly from approximately 1989-1993, a period of cross-pollination with the UK hardcore sound.
This sound did survive in various forms in its mother countries – primarily Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany – beyond 1992, but by then the general scenes in these countries had moved forwards to trance, industrial techno or gabba (with happy hardcore/hard house being the equivalent ‘Belgian Techno’ – derivative sounds in the UK). London and Bristol are the two cities which are most associated with Drum and Bass.